Tuesday, 27 September 2016

Still NASA won’t admit their Galileo team got Europa wrong, Richard Greenberg was right

  Press Release  NASA's Hubble spots possible water plumes erupting on Jupiter's moon Europa

It’s taken NASA years to admit that 100-km plumes seen in 2012 by a SWRI team (Hubble images, Lorenz Roth et al.) are probably water vapour emitted from an ocean below the outer ice crust. 

A new image below indicates H2O plumes in the 7 o'clock position.

Richard Greenberg long ago argued that NASA’s Galileo spacecraft images taken, 1995-2003, implied an ice shell thin enough (few km) to enable the ocean to penetrate the major cracks maintained by tidal flexing. But this contradicted the project’s assumption of a thick crust entombing a deep internal ocean, and Greenberg was ostracised by NASA’s team leaders.  The new announcement fails to acknowledge Greenberg as being correct, showing NASA maintains their feud with him for severe criticism of the ‘thick ice’ cabal in Unmasking Europa: The Search for Life on Jupiter's Ocean Moon.


The Astrobiology Mag review of Greenberg's book in 2008 by Michael Shirber presented the basic case admirably.


On the basis that water in the ocean would be pumped up and down in the inter-plate cracks though tidal stresses on the ice-plates, Greenberg predicted that some would burst out to the surface.  He proceeded to further predict that the cracks would provide a suitable environment for oceanic microbial and plant-life.  

A professor in the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory at the University of Arizona, Greenberg was one of the first to formulate how tidal forces could shape the geology on Jovian moons. He had the opportunity to test his ideas as a member of the imaging team on NASA’s Galileo spacecraft, which orbited Jupiter from 1995 to 2003, but the team leaders refused his inputs and ostracised him.